Dean of Research
Dr Holt’s areas of research interest include falls prevention, neurology, reliability of vertebral subluxation indicators and population health. His PhD focused on the effects of chiropractic care on sensorimotor function and falls risk in older adults.
Improvement in concussion symptoms of headache, poor concentration and photophobia in a 13-year-old male receiving chiropractic care: A case report
Hunt, B. B,. Holt, K., Cade, A. (2018)
Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Paediatrics, 17(1),1405-1409
Posture modulates the sensitivity of the H-reflex
Interexaminer reliability of a multidimensional battery of tests used to assess for vertebral subluxations
Holt, K., Russell, D., Cooperstein, R., Young, M., Sherson, M., Haavik, H. (2018)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 46(1), 101–117
The effects of a single session of spinal manipulation on strength and cortical drive in athletes
Christiansen, T. L., Niazi, I. K., Holt, K., Nedergaard, R. W., Duehr, J., Allen, K., Marshall, P., Türker, K.S., Hartvigsen, J. & Haavik, H. (2018)
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1-13
Interexaminer reliability of seated motion palpation in defined spinal regions for the stiffest spinal site using continuous measures analysis
Holt, K., Russell, D., Young, M., Sherson, M., Haavik, H. (2017)
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Resolution of Breastfeeding and Gastrointestinal Complaints in Infant Twins with Plagiocephaly & Scaphocephaly Following Birth Trauma: A Case Series Report
Collins, K., Alcantara, J., Holt, K (2015)
J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health, 2015(1) 34-41
Objective: This article describes and discusses the chiropractic care of seven month old prematurely delivered fraternal twin boys with plagiocephaly and scaphocephaly.
Clinical Features: Seven month old fraternal twin boys with chronic reflux, breastfeeding difficulties, irritability, excessive crying, plagiocephaly, and scaphocephaly were presented by their mother for chiropractic care.
Intervention and Outcome: The children received spinal and cranial adjustments based on Sacro Occipital and Neuro Emotional Technique protocols. After 8 weeks of chiropractic care the mother reported a decrease in severity of the twins reflux, breastfeeding difficulties and irritability. At 16 weeks of chiropractic care the twins reflux had ceased and their cranial symmetry had markedly improved.
Conclusion: Complaints associated with birth trauma including deformational plagiocephaly, breastfeeding difficulties and general irritability improved in seven month old twin boys while they were receiving chiropractic care. We support further research to examine the role chiropractors may play in caring for infants with plagiocephaly and other complaints associated with birth trauma.
Resolution of Nocturnal Enuresis in a 10-year-old Child Following Chiropractic Care to Reduce Vertebral Subluxation: A Case Report
Luscombe, S., Alcantara, J., Holmes, S., Holt, K. (2014)
J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health, 2014(3) 55-59
Objective: To describe the chiropractic care of a 10-year-old boy experiencing frequent nocturnal enuresis (NE), otherwise known as “bedwetting”.
Clinical Features: The child suffered from long-term regular bedwetting.
Intervention and Outcome: The child received instrument assisted and drop table technique adjustments over a two month period. After four weeks of chiropractic care the child’s bedwetting ceased.
Conclusion: This case study adds to the growing body of literature that supports a possible link between chiropractic care and improvements in NE. Further research in this field is required to investigate this potential link.
Keywords: Enuresis, nocturnal, bedwetting, child, chiropractic, vertebral subluxation
Effectiveness of chiropractic care in improving sensorimotor function associated with falls risk in older people
Holt, K. R. (2014)
Doctoral dissertation, ResearchSpace@ Auckland
This thesis assessed whether chiropractic care was effective in improving sensorimotor function that is related to fall risk in community-dwelling older adults over a 12 week period. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted that compared the effect of chiropractic care to a ‘usual care’ control on proprioception (joint position sense), postural stability (static posturography), a broad measure of sensorimotor function (choice stepping reaction time), multisensory integration (the sound-induced flash illusion), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). Outcomes were assessed at four weeks and 12 weeks after a baseline assessment. Participants in the trial included 60 community dwelling older adults from the Auckland region. Of potential participants screened for eligibility, 92% were eligible. Chiropractic care was provided by 12 chiropractic practices from across Auckland in their usual practice setting, following an approach tailored to the participants’ individual clinical needs.
The key findings from the study were that the chiropractic group improved compared to the usual care control group in ankle joint position sense (p=0.045, mean difference across four and 12 week assessments 0.20˚, 95% CI 0.01-0.39˚), and choice stepping reaction time (p=0.01, mean difference at 12 week assessment 118ms, 95% CI 24 to 212ms), and they were also less susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion (p=0.01, mean difference at 12 week assessment 13.5%, 95% CI 2.9 to 24.0%). Between group differences were also observed in the physical component of health-related quality of life with the chiropractic group improving compared to the control group between the four and 12 week assessments (p=0.047, mean difference 2.4, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.8).
Further research is now required to understand the potential mechanisms of action associated with the improvements that were observed in sensorimotor function, multisensory integration, and the physical component of quality of life in the chiropractic group. Future studies are also required to investigate whether chiropractic care may play a role in preventing falls in older people.
Immediate Resolution of Constipation in an Infant Following Chiropractic Care: A Case Report & Selective Review of the Literature
Kim I, Hammond K, Alcantara J, Holt K. (2012)
Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health – Chiropractic, 2012(2), 61-65
Objective: To describe the history, treatment, and the positive outcome of chiropractic care in an infant with constipation.
Clinical features: A 3-week-old boy was presented by his mother with complaints of constipation since birth.
Intervention and outcome: The patient received chiropractic adjustments (Diversified Technique) to address subluxations at the atlas, thoracic spine, and sacrum. The patient’s mother reported an immediate, dramatic improvement in the patient’s bowel function following the first chiropractic adjustment. Consistent normal bowel function after each feeding was reported thereafter.
Conclusion: This case report suggests that further research is required to better understand if chiropractic care may be beneficial for infants suffering from constipation.
Key words: Constipation, chiropractic, infant, pediatric, vertebral subluxation
Chiropractic Care in New Zealand: Theories, Practice and Research
Holt KR, Haavik H. (2012)
New Zealand Journal of Natural Medicine, Issue 6 Aug-Nov.
The effects of manual therapy on balance and falls: a systematic review
Holt, K. R., Haavik, H., & Elley, C. R. (2012)
Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 35(3), 227-234.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the scientific literature on the effects of manual therapy interventions on falls and balance.
Methods: This systematic review included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of manual therapy interventions on falls or balance. Outcomes of interest were rate of falls, number of fallers reported, and measures of postural stability. Data sources included searches through June 2011 of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Allied and Complimentary Medicine, Current Controlled Trials, Manual Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System, Index to the Chiropractic Literature, National Institutes of Health (USA), and Google Scholar.
Results: Eleven trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Most trials had poor to fair methodological quality. All included trials reported outcomes of functional balance tests or tests that used a computerized balance platform. Nine of the 11 trials reported some statistically significant improvements relating to balance after an intervention that included a manual therapy component. The ability to draw conclusions from a number of the studies was limited by poor methodological quality or very low participant numbers. A meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes. Only 2 small trials included falls as an outcome measure, but as a feasibility study and a pilot study, no meaningful conclusions could be drawn about the effects of the intervention on falls.
Conclusion: A limited amount of research has been published that supports a role for manual therapy in improving postural stability and balance. More well-designed controlled trials with sufficient participant numbers are required to draw meaningful clinical conclusions about the role that manual therapies may play in preventing falls or improving postural stability and balance.
Key Indexing Terms: Accidental Falls; Postural Balance; Manual Therapy; Systematic Review; Chiropractic.
Improvement in autistic behaviors following chiropractic care: A case series
Cleave J, Alcantara J, Holt K. (2011)
Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health – Chiropractic 2011(4), 125-131
Objective: To describe two cases of individuals diagnosed with autism undergoing chiropractic care.
Clinical features: Case one involves a 20 year old autistic male who displays aggressive behavior towards others. Case two is a 17-year-old autistic female who abuses herself.
Intervention and outcome: Both patients received a trial of chiropractic care for 5 and 4 months respectively with visit frequency of once per week. Both patients responded favorably to chiropractic care with the male patient decreasing in aggressive behavior and the female patient decreasing in self-abuse and improved socialization.
Conclusion: Two cases of individuals who suffered from autism are presented. Each had favorable results after undergoing chiropractic care. This case series provides supporting evidence that individuals with autism may benefit from chiropractic care. More research is warranted in this area.
Key indexing terms: autism, autistic disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, chiropractic, vertebral subluxation.
Fall risk profile and quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients
Holt, K. R., Noone, P. L., Short, K., Elley, C. R., & Haavik, H. (2011)
Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 34(2), 78-87.
Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fall risk factors in older chiropractic patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients and to see whether a history of falling was related to quality-of-life status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 chiropractic practices throughout Auckland, New Zealand, and Melbourne, Australia. The study involved gaining a profile of health status, fall history, and fall risk from active chiropractic patients who were 65 years or older.
Results: One hundred ten older chiropractic patients were approached, and 101 agreed to participate in this study (response rate, 91.8%). Thirty-five percent of participants had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months. Of those that had fallen, 80% had at least a minor injury, with 37% of fallers requiring medical attention and 6% suffering a serious injury. The prevalence of most fall risk factors was consistent with published data for community dwelling older adults. Quality of life of older chiropractic patients appeared to be good, but fallers reported a lower physical component summary score compared with no fallers (P = .04).
Conclusions: A portion of the older chiropractic patients sampled in this study had a substantial risk of falling. This risk could be assessed on a regular basis for the presence of modifiable fall risk factors, and appropriate advice, given when fall risks are identified
Key Indexing Terms: Chiropractic; Accidental Falls; Aged; Risk Factors; Postural Balance; Quality of Life
Resolution of vertigo, migraines and neck pain in a 12-year-old boy receiving chiropractic care-a case study
Kelly, D. D., & Holt, K. (2010)
Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health–Chiropractic, 4, 150-153.
Objective: This article describes and discusses changes in vertigo, migraine and neck pain symptoms in a 12 year old boy receiving chiropractic care.
Clinical Features: A twelve year old boy with a long history of routine, recurrent dizziness, chronic neck pain and migraines presented for chiropractic care. These symptoms resulted in him being absent from school more than half of the time for the previous seven years Intervention and Outcome: The patient received high velocity low amplitude thrust chiropractic adjustments for the reduction of vertebral subluxations over a twelve month period. The C2 and C6 spinal segments were regularly adjusted over this timeframe, as well as mid-thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum. The initial frequency of care was three chiropractic visits per week for four weeks. Visit frequency was then gradually reduced over the next 12 months to one visit per month. Besides the chiropractic adjustments the patient was also advised to perform cervical stretches (lateral flexion, rotation and flexion/extension) twice daily. After the first week of chiropractic care the patient reported a cessation of his headaches and neck ache. His vertigo attacks decreased in frequency and became less severe, then ceased altogether. His attendance improved dramatically at school and dropped from 223 half days absent the previous year to 56 half days absent for the 12 months after beginning chiropractic care.
Conclusion: This case report describes a child who reported a cessation in symptoms of vertigo, neck pain and headaches after beginning chiropractic care. There are a growing number of case reports that suggest chiropractic care may be beneficial for patients suffering from vertigo. Further study is required to investigate the role chiropractors may play in caring for people with vertigo.
Key Words: Vertigo; Chiropractic; Migraine; Case Reports; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Vertebral Subluxation; Adjustment
Reflex effects of a spinal adjustment on blood pressure
Holt, K., Beck, R., Sexton, S., & Taylor, H. H. (2010)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 40 Issue 3 (Sep 2010)
Objective: To investigate whether an adjustment to any segment in the spine resulted in a blood pressure change and to see whether the direction of any potential blood pressure changes were dependent on the region of the spine adjusted.
Methods: Participants included 70 patients attending the New Zealand College of Chiropractic Student Health Centre. Blood pressure was recorded by a blinded examiner before and after either a single Diversified type chiropractic adjustment or an adjustment set-up with no thrust. Participants were randomly allocated to groups. Each trial was allocated to a subgroup based on the spinal region involved. Some participants were involved in more than one trial session with a total of 118 trials included in the study.
Results: Multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA assessing for any effect from the adjustment revealed a significant overall interactive effect for the factors TIME (pre / post) and GROUP (adjustment / control) [F (1,103)=4.23, p=0.042] for systolic blood pressure. Further analysis of the adjustment group revealed a significant overall effect [F (1,49)=10.89, p=0.002] with systolic blood pressure decreasing significantly (-3.9 +/- 10.3mmHg) following an adjustment. No other significant differences were found in the adjustment or control groups.
Conclusion: An adjustment to any segment in the spine resulted in a statistically significant average decrease in systolic blood pressure of 3.9 mmHg. The direction of blood pressure change that was observed was not dependent on the region of the spine adjusted. However, visual analysis suggests cervical and lumbopelvic adjustments had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure than thoracic adjustments. Diastolic blood pressure remained relatively constant. Average changes in blood pressure were unlikely to be clinically significant. However, in individual participants some blood pressure changes were considered to be clinically relevant following an adjustment.
Changes in asthma symptoms and bedwetting in a four year old child receiving chiropractic care: a case report
Postles, A., Taylor, H. H., & Holt, K. (2010)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia 40(1), 34-36.
Objective: This article describes and discusses changes in asthma, bedwetting and allergy symptoms in a four-year-old child receiving chiropractic care.
Clinical features: A four-year-old child diagnosed with asthma and a history of allergies, bedwetting and disrupted sleep presented for chiropractic care.
Intervention and outcome: The child received spinal and cranial adjustments based on Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT) protocol. After 32 weeks of chiropractic care the child no longer has asthma symptoms, bedwetting had ceased and a positive change in other presenting symptoms was noted.
Conclusion: There are a growing number of case reports that describe improvements in childhood problems such as asthma and nocturnal enuresis in children receiving chiropractic care. Thus far clinical trials have failed to provide sufficient evidence to support the potential link between in these childhood problems and chiropractic care. Further study is required to investigate the role chiropractors may play in caring for children with these disorders.
Index terms: Asthma, chiropractic, case reports (publication type), nocturnal enuresis
Process versus outcome: challenges of the chiropractic wellness paradigm
Russell, Eric G. (2009)
Journal of chiropractic humanities 16.1 (2009): 50-53.
Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the term wellness in the context of the philosophy of chiropractic.
Discussion: PubMed and Index to Chiropractic Literature show an upward trend in use of the term wellness. Wellness may be used differently depending upon the profession and may be considered a process by some and an outcome by others.
Conclusion: There appears to be no consensus on the definition of wellness or how it is being used. Wellness is not exclusive to chiropractic, and wellness is not synonymous with health, although is often used that way. Wellness is a societal trend, and chiropractic as a health care profession may be a good fit for this concept.
Key indexing terms: Wellness; Chiropractic; Philosophy; Vitalism
Practice Characteristics of Chiropractors in New Zealand
Holt, K., Kelly, B., & Taylor, H. H. (2009)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 39(3):103-9.
Objective: To summarise the key findings of the 2007 New Zealand College of Chiropractic Stakeholders Advisory Committee survey of the New Zealand chiropractic profession.
Method: The survey questionnaire comprised 50 questions divided into 5 sections: the chiropractic practitioner, the chiropractic practice professional functions and referrals, accident compensation and the chiropractic patient. Hard copy surveys were mailed to all 306 chiropractors with a New Zealand postal address who were issued with an Annual Practicing Certificate during the 2005/2006 year. Chiropractors were invited to either complete the hard copy survey or complete the survey online using an electronic version.
Summary: 152 chiropractors responded to the survey. The results indicate there is a desire amongst the profession to increase the number of chiropractors in New Zealand. They also suggest that, despite the lack of mandate by the New Zealand Chiropractic Board for a set minimum number of continuing education hours, most New Zealand chiropractors appear to be engaging in a satisfactory level of continuing education.
Interexaminer reliability of a leg length analysis procedure among novice and experienced practitioners
Holt, K. R., Russell, D. G., Hoffmann, N. J., Bruce, B. I., Bushell, P. M., & Taylor, H. H. (2009)
Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 32(3), 216-222.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of a leg length analysis protocol between an experienced chiropractor and an inexperienced chiropractic student who has undergone an intensive training program.
Methods: Fifty participants, aged from 18 to 55 years, were recruited from the New Zealand College of Chiropractic teaching clinic. An experienced chiropractor and a final-year chiropractic student were the examiners. Participants were examined for leg length inequality in the prone straight leg and flexed knee positions by each of the examiners. The examiners were asked to record which leg appeared shorter in each position. Examiners were blinded to each other’s findings. κ statistics and percent agreement between examiners were used to assess interexaminer reliability.
Results: κ analysis revealed substantial interexaminer reliability in both leg positions and also substantial agreement when straight and flexed knee results were combined for each participant. κ scores ranged from 0.61, with 72% agreement, for the combined positions to 0.70, with 87% agreement, for the extended knee position. All of the κ statistics analyzed surpassed the minimal acceptable standard of 0.40 for a reliability trial such as this.
Conclusion: This study revealed good interexaminer reliability of all aspects of the leg length analysis protocol used in this study
Key Indexing Terms: Leg Length Inequality; Chiropractic; Observer Variation; Reproducibility of Results
Long term assessment of blood indices and immune panel profiling of subjects receiving chiropractic care: a pilot study
Boone, W. R., Oswald, P., Holt, K., Beck, R., Singh, K., & Ashton, A. (2006)
Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research, June 7th, pp 1-11.
Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the approach of monitoring immune status as a feasible means of assessing physiological health in longitudinal studies that seek to ascertain changes in patient health status under chiropractic care.
Methods: The study presents findings profiling blood indices and the immune status of 11 novice chiropractic subjects (7 males, 4 females) at baseline, with re-assessments at 3 months and 9 months duration. The New Zealand group was compared to several other non-New Zealand healthy populations.
Results: Although significant changes occurred in blood indices and the immune profile in the present study group at 3 and 9 months re-assessments, the study values remained within the reference range for healthy adults. Significant positive correlations were seen for CD3% and CD8% at baseline and 3 months, suggesting a proportional increase or decrease over the range of values. It may be that the positive correlation is a reflection of the hosts’ resistance to viral infection and destruction of virus infected cells. Negative correlations were observed for CD56% and CD20% and CD56% and CD3% at 3 months and 9 months. CD 56% was also negatively correlated with CD8% and CD4% at different sampling periods. The inverse relationship among these lymphocyte subpopulations may reflect a natural balancing or redistribution of the overall lymphocyte subpopulation as individual cell types respond to a variety of immune challenges. The subjects in this pilot study sustained physiological health from the standpoint of maintaining a panel of blood indices and lymphocyte markers within normal reference ranges throughout the 9 months period. Further, the subjects’ blood indices and immune panels were comparable with population findings from other countries and ethnicities.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the approach of monitoring immune status is feasible as a means of assessing physiological health in longitudinal studies that seek to ascertain changes in patient health status.
Key words: Lymphocyte subpopulations, reference ranges, immune response, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, NK cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, chiropractic.
Physical, physiological, and immune status changes, coupled with self-perceptions of health and quality of life, in subjects receiving chiropractic care: a pilot study
Boone, W. R., Oswald, P., Holt, K., Beck, R., Singh, K., & Ashton, A. (2005)
Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research, July 5th, pp 1-6.
Objective: A pilot study to gather preliminary information regarding chiropractic care and possible links to immune status and improved aspects of health and quality of life.
Methods: The study followed 11 novice chiropractic subjects (7 males, 4 females) over a period of 9 months. Other than presenting with biomechanical complaints, the subjects represented a healthy population as determined by history, complete blood count, and immune status. Over a 9 months period, subjects received chiropractic adjustments when indicated. A self-reported quality of life questionnaire was completed by each subject following the initial visit (baseline), and at 3 and 9 months reassessment periods. At the same intervals, a complete blood count and an immune panel including absolute counts and percentages for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56 and CD4/CD8 ratio were determined.
Results: Subjects demonstrated significant reductions in all chiropractic indicators at 3 months (p = 0.00) and 9 months (p = 0.00) compared to baseline. A positive change in Life Enjoyment occurred from 3 months to 9 months (p = 0.026), representing a large clinical effect (0.80). Significant negative correlations were also observed between motion palpation findings and CD56% and absolute CD56 count at baseline, suggesting a stress related link. Overall: The subjects appear to have maintained a healthy physiology. This conclusion is based on the complete blood count and immune profile throughout the duration of the study, as variations overall remained within reference values for healthy adults established by Auckland Hospital (New Zealand).
Conclusion: This pilot study has provided some preliminary information regarding chiropractic care and possible links to immune status and improved aspects of health and quality of life. Limited numbers of subjects, however, preclude definitive conclusions. Larger studies, including ill and healthy populations, to investigate the parameters presented herein and others such as killer cell activity will be necessary to test the conclusions presented.
Key words: Chiropractic, immune status, motion palpation.
Chiropractic patients presenting to the New Zealand College of Chiropractic teaching clinic: A short description of patients and patient complaints
Holt, K. R., & Beck, R. W. (2005)
Chiropr J Aust; 35:122-4.
Objective: To report the basic characteristics of new chiropractic patients presenting to the New Zealand College of Chiropractic teaching clinic.
Design and Outcome Variables: Retrospective analysis of 1,004 new patient files opened between 1997 and 2001. Age, gender and chief complaint were recorded.
Results: Some 51.9% of patients were female. The mean age was 32.3 years, and age range was 0-85 years. The most common chief complaint was low back pain (38.1%). Overall spinal problems accounted for 64.4% of chief complaints, and 11.6% of patients presented for wellness care with no complaint present.
Conclusion: Patients presenting to the New Zealand College of Chiropractic teaching clinic showed many similarities with teaching clinics in the United States of America and Australia. Some discrepancies were noted, however, between the patient characteristics at the teaching clinic and the general New Zealand population.
Radiographic anomalies that may alter chiropractic intervention strategies found in a New Zealand population
Beck, R. W., Holt, K. R., Fox, M. A., & Hurtgen-Grace, K. L. (2004)
Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 27(9), 554-559.
Objective: To provide occurrence rates for anomalies discovered on radiographs in patients seeking chiropractic care.
Methods: One thousand four random patient files dated between 1997 and 2001 were obtained from the records of the outpatient clinic at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. In cases in which radiographs were taken, the radiographic reports were analyzed by the authors for the presence of a number of anomalies.
Results: Eight hundred forty-seven full-spine radiographs were included in the study. Anomalies were found in 68% of patients who had radiographs taken. The 5 most frequently occurring anomalies in descending order were degenerative joint disease (23.8%), posterior ponticle (13.6%), soft tissue abnormalities (13.5%), transitional segments (9.8%), and spondylolisthesis (7.8%). Other noteworthy occurrences because of their generalized status as absolute contraindications to adjustment are fracture (6.6%), malignant tumor (0.8%-3.1%), abdominal aortic aneurysm (0.8%) and atlantoaxial instability (0.6%).
Conclusion: A large percentage of patients presenting for chiropractic care have anomalies present on spinal radiographs. Further research and analysis is necessary to investigate the risk-verses-benefit ratio of spinal radiographs for chiropractic patients.
Key Indexing Terms: Chiropractic; Radiography; Anomaly; Bone Diseases
Awards / Distinctions
New Zealand Chiropractors’ Association Chiropractor of the Year
Awarded New Zealand Association of Private Education Providers Margaret Yates Scholarship
Awarded New Zealand Chiropractors’ Association Mackay Scholarship
New Zealand College of Chiropractic Alumni Association Chiropractor of the Year
New Zealand College of Chiropractic Outstanding Service Award
First, second and third prize award winning papers at the Chiropractors’ Association of Australia Scientific Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 22nd November, 2009.
University of Auckland Senior Health Research Doctoral Scholarship for 2010 – 2012.
University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarship for 2010 – 2012
Post Graduate Diploma in Health Science (Epidemiology / Biostatistics) was awarded with Distinction by the University of Auckland
Australasian Epidemiological Association Student Prize, University of Auckland, in recognition of exemplary scholastic performance in epidemiology